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Richard III. war von bis zu seinem Tod in der Schlacht von Bosworth König von England. Er war der letzte englische Herrscher aus dem Haus Plantagenet und zugleich der letzte, der auf einem Schlachtfeld fiel. Richard III. (* 2. Oktober auf Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire; † August bei Market Bosworth, Leicestershire) war von bis zu seinem. Die Tragödie von König Richard III. (engl. The Tragedy of King Richard the Third) ist ein Drama von William Shakespeare in fünf Akten über den englischen. Richard III. wurde zeitlebens gehasst. Experten identifizieren den Parkplatz-Fund von Leicester als seine Leiche: Einige ihrer Verletzungen. Untersuchungen des Schädels und der Gebeine von Richard III. geben neue Hinweise darauf, wie der Monarch auf dem Schlachtfeld.
Die Tragödie von König Richard III. (engl. The Tragedy of King Richard the Third) ist ein Drama von William Shakespeare in fünf Akten über den englischen. Shakespeare, William - Richard III. - Inhalt und Analyse - Andreas Sichelstiel - Referat / Aufsatz (Schule) - Didaktik - Deutsch - Literatur, Werke - Arbeiten. Shakespeares Drama hat das Bild des englischen Königs Richard III. bis heute geprägt: ein buckliger Erz-Bösewicht. Die jüngste Forschung. Buckingham then exits. A Plantagenet primer on the last English king to die in battle. Advanced Search…. Act 3, Scene just click for source. Teach your students to analyze click here like Https://hallsbergsterminalen.se/online-filme-stream-deutsch/elizabeth-alderfer.php does. Lord Hastingswho objects to Richard's accession, is arrested and executed on a trumped-up charge of treason.
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If he did, they may well have left a lasting impression. In Richard was summoned to attend the court of his seven-year-old second cousin, once removed, King Henry VI.
As he moved closer to the age of majority, this may have been a move to bring him into the centre of government or to keep a closer watch on one deemed a potential threat.
Richard was permitted to take up livery in , when he was declared of age. The Cardinal wished to promote his nephews but Gloucester chose Richard for the position and he was appointed lieutenant-general in France for one year.
Arriving in France in June , Richard established himself at Rouen, the capital of Normandy, due to the fall of Paris two months earlier.
He left military matters to the vastly experienced John Talbot and focussed on administration, though he did step up the tactic of destroying recaptured, strategically unimportant castles to avoid the constant expense of losing and retaking them.
Warwick died in post on 30 April and Richard was selected to return to France, this time for a five-year term and with increased powers.
This period can be characterised as solid rather than spectacular. Richard maintained good relations with the French and concluded a peace treaty with Burgundy.
At the end of this term, Richard returned to England, apparently expecting to be reappointed, but on Christmas Eve , Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset was given the post and Richard was made Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.
In early , Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester was arrested and died in custody amid suspicion that he plotted against his nephew the king. Richard arrived in Ireland in July and received a rapturous welcome, since his Mortimer heritage also brought him strong connections to Ireland.
As had been the case in France, Richard soon found himself unpaid and out of pocket as he financed the government himself.
By , Richard was claiming that Beaufort was operating a whispering campaign against him. He raised an army and marched to Dartford, south of London.
When King Henry was left incapacitated by a bout of mental illness, a choice had to be made between Margaret and Richard to lead the government.
Misogyny and mistrust of the French probably combined to influence the decision to appoint Richard as Lord Protector. His time in office marked a notably even-handed period with genuine efforts to resolve the problems of crown finances.
Richard was installed again as Lord Protector, though only briefly, before finding himself once more in the political wilderness.
He left Ludlow but turned back at Worcester when he received news that Henry was approaching at the head of a numerically superior army.
They were attainted and stripped of all their lands and titles. When Richard returned to England in , with Henry a captive after the Battle of Northampton, it was to claim the throne by virtue of his Mortimer blood.
According to An English Chronicle, Richard was tricked into leading his army into battle by Baron Neville, who then turned on him.
Richard and his second son Edmund were killed. He is often remembered as a proud, belligerent and bellicose man, yet the story of his life is one of impeccable service until he fell into conflict with those around the king.
Polydore Vergil asserted that she 'complanyd afterward in sundry places to right many noblemen …of that great injury'.
More recently Michael K Jones has suggested that Edward IV really was a bastard and that Richard's claim to the throne was largely inspired by this fact, abetted by his mother.
The nature of Richard's relationship with Cecily remains one of the many mysteries surrounding his accession to the throne.
Cecily herself is one of the best documented and most fascinating women of the fifteenth-century. She was, for a time, the most powerful woman in England and she was an astonishing political survivor through many regime changes.
Cecily was born in , the daughter of a staunchly Lancastrian family, and she was married to Richard duke of York before her tenth birthday.
It appears to have been a happy marriage — York trusted her to act on his behalf in business and politics and he spent huge sums on her clothes and jewels.
These children were with her during some of the most traumatic years of her life, as the Lancastrian kingship collapsed and her husband made his unsuccessful bid for the throne of England.
She would have supervised their early education, perhaps taught them to read. For their safety Cecily sent the boys, aged just eleven and eight, to the court of the duke of Burgundy.
Her decision to remain in London to defend the interests of her only other surviving son, the eighteen-year-old Edward, earl of March, indicates her priorities and her ambition for her family.
Immediately after their return to England the king's little brothers, like their mother, probably spent much of their time within the royal household.
Richard may well have been nearly thirteen before he left the regular company of his mother for the household of the earl of Warwick.
One observer claimed in that Cecily 'can rule the king as she pleases', although it seems unlikely that she retained such influence as Edward grew older.
The year was to prove the first real test in Cecily's relations with her sons. This was the year that George, duke of Clarence, joined forces with his father-in-law, the earl of Warwick, to rebel against and imprison Edward IV.
It was at this time that the first rumours that Edward IV was alleged to be a bastard emerged — it was a very common trope in medieval propaganda and there is no evidence that anyone actually believed it.
Richard was steadfastly loyal to Edward, despite his own connections with Warwick. But where did Cecily stand?
Before Clarence and Warwick set sail for Calais from where they launched their initial rebellion Cecily spent five days with them at Sandwich.
Michael Jones has surmised that she had fallen out with Edward and was in favour of the rebellion. Yet only months earlier Edward had named his second daughter after Cecily and as soon as Edward regained his throne in he took his family to join his mother at Baynard's Castle.
Cecily the Widow. My suspicion is that Cecily knew nothing of rebellion but was aware of Clarence's plan to marry Warwick's eldest daughter in defiance of the king.
This suggests that for all her loyalty to Edward, Cecily did not always put him entirely before her other sons - she wanted George to marry England's most eligible heiress.
Her relationship with Richard in the s is perhaps best illustrated by records of a land dispute in Essex that arose between their servants.
Richard had a financial interest in the land himself, but surviving letters reveal his willingness to allow Cecily to lay down the terms and place of negotiation.
Ultimately the affair was settled entirely in her man's favour. Cecily's letters also indicate her affection for Richard: she expressed regret that he had not been able to visit her recently when Edward was with her at Berkhamsted, yet she had seen Richard only a few weeks previously at Syon.
Notably he and Anne owned a copy of Mechtild of Hackeborn's mystical account of her visions, The Booke of Gostlye Grace, a text which Cecily also owned.
They may well have shared a wider interest in Carthusian spirituality. Although Cecily has sometimes been cited as a woman of exceptional piety, it is really the wealth of records for her religious interests that is unusual.
Richard's Accession Baynards Castle — Cecily's London home This is about as much as we know about the relationship between mother and son before How far then did she acquiesce in his actions that summer?
His use of her London home, Baynard's Castle, suggests that she was not wholly opposed to his actions, yet she was not present at his coronation and indeed there are no records to indicate whether she was in London or Berkhamsted that summer.
There were rumours in London that Richard considered claiming the throne on the grounds that Edward IV was a bastard.
However, there is no indication of such a justification in any official records. My suspicion is that Cecily did not actively promote Richard's accession, but equally did not oppose it either.
She was pragmatic enough to recognise the risks for the House of York and England that a child king would bring.
By contrast her youngest son was a proven politician and warrior. The wording seems to imply that there was no animosity between them but that they did not see each other on a very regular basis, 'Madam, I heartily beseech you that I may often hear from you to my comfort', Richard wrote.
If Cecily really resented Richard as Vergil claimed there would be little point in his writing such words. In May , he spent a few days with her at Berkhamsted.
That was probably the last time that she saw him before his death at Bosworth. As far as I am aware, only one surviving document connected with her administration referred to her as mother of Richard as well as Edward and that was destined for a poor priory, unlikely ever to be seen by royal officials.
Such a coldly political approach is disappointing to the modern reader, but Cecily was responsible not only for her own survival but also for the wellbeing of her huge affinity.
From she worked with many of those closest to Henry VII and even appointed some of his councillors as executors of her will.
A version of this article was first published in the Ricardian Bulletin Autumn Updated following publication of J.
Laynesmith, Cecily Duchess of York Bloomsbury, The careers of George and Richard were entwined at many points. They grew up together, clashed in the most major political crisis of the s, and if George had not been put to death by their brother Edward, Richard would not have become king in George is remembered in history as ' False, Fleeting, Perjur'd Clarence ' — Shakespeare's description — and because he was drowned in malmsey wine.
Certainly, he perjured himself several times and aspired to wear a crown to which he was not entitled.
Yet there was much more to George than simply an ambitious and courageous perjurer. He was just as talented as his brothers, claimed the Crowland Chronicler: just as effective an orator and as dangerous a demagogue, an idol of the multitude, as his father York or father-in-law the Kingmaker.
What a pity that we have nothing concrete with which to substantiate these characteristics. York was the greatest nobleman of his age.
York was lieutenant — that is, governor and commander-in-chief — in turn of both Henry VI's kingdom of France and of Ireland, and three times lord protector of England.
That achievement transformed the prospects of all his surviving children: George and Richard, now of political significance, were despatched to the safety of the Low Countries.
Until then neither boy was of much account. Seven of York's children reached maturity, four of them sons: George was the third of these; Richard was the fourth and the last to survive infancy.
George was born in Dublin in , during York's residence in Ireland as lieutenant. Nothing more is recorded of the upbringing of any of York's younger children until The two eldest surviving sons were residing separately at Ludlow in the mids and the two elder daughters, Anne in and Elizabeth in , were married to ducal husbands.
By implication Margaret born , George b. With her they were placed in the custody of their aunt Anne, Duchess of Buckingham, in until their father, Richard, Duke of York, established his claim to the crown in What Duke Richard had in mind for them is uncertain.
His eldest sons Edward and Edmund were to be noblemen. Since neither George nor Richard was earmarked for an ecclesiastical career, so each was to remain a layman and to pursue a secular, genteel and knightly career.
Edward's Heir Tutbury Castle. Since Edmund had also perished, George as next surviving brother was now heir to the crown and Richard was third in line.
Though still too young to be effective politically, they had symbolic significance, as assurances that the new dynasty had come to stay and as potential cements by marriage to diplomatic alliances.
Of course George, as the older, was much the more important. Each was knighted, elevated to the Garter, and created duke.
George took the title of Clarence that was a potent reminder of the hereditary title of the Yorkists to the crown. George was appointed to high office, as Lieutenant of Ireland and High Steward of England for the coronation, although too young actually to exercise them in person.
Each boy was also granted great estates, theoretically. As neither was of age, their brother the king continued to draw the revenues and felt free to revise what had been allocated: the grants were earnests of the king's intention to endow them in due course sufficiently to support their estates as royal dukes.
In George was granted the whole county palatine of Chester, the normal patrimony of the heir presumptive, but only very briefly.
During these years, the boys had their own establishment, their own residence in a tower at Greenwich Palace, and their own staff: Master John Tapton was Clarence's chancellor and Sir Robert Wingfield was supervisor of his livelihood.
There apparently they resided continually, except when required for ceremonial and state occasions, such as the Leicester parliament of and the queen's coronation in About that time, Duke Richard was removed to the household of the earl of Warwick, where he apparently remained until declared of age in - George was declared of age on 10 July Although still only sixteen years old, like other royalty George's majority was advanced, presumably to make him more politically useful.
If not quite of the front rank, such munificence raised George above all contemporary nobles except Warwick, Buckingham, and Norfolk.
George had estates in Northumberland, Yorkshire, Kent and the West Country when he did homage in July , but it was to Tutbury in Staffordshire that he departed in November.
Since Queen Margaret had based herself in the area late in the s, Tutbury Castle may not have been altogether neglected, but we know that Clarence undertook great building works there, scarcely a recognisable vestige of which survives or is recorded the Rous Roll.
Presumably it was adapted to accommodate the enormous household of anticipated in in his household ordinance. That proper regulation of his household was desirable is suggested by the Lichfield prostitute frequented by fourteen members of his household in Goodman.
Great lords sought order and accountability with conspicuous consumption and splendid display.
Still in his teens, he rated himself most highly. At the very least he needed to marry a great heiress to raise his revenues up to his expenses.
At this point, he parted company with his brother Edward IV. Evidently he wanted more than he had and what the king gave him.
He had lost the county of Chester, most probably on Edward's marriage, and had ceased to be heir to the throne with the birth of Princess Elizabeth in He was not alone if he believed that the male line should take priority, nor if he doubted the validity of Edward's marriage and hence the legitimacy of his children.
Moreover he wanted to marry the eldest daughter of Warwick the Kingmaker, the greatest possible heiress, who may have brought with her promise of an immediate subsidy; Edward, however, objected and hoped to arrange a marriage diplomatically advantageous to himself.
George married Isabel Neville nevertheless on 12 July and joined Warwick at once in rebellion against the king. Whatever his reasons, this was a breach of the allegiance due from him as a subject, let alone as the king's brother.
Warwick had many other grievances, some self-interested, others on policy and principle, and committed himself to reform.
Many people at the time and historians for three centuries afterwards thought that he was justified. Edward's favourites were destroyed at Edgecote, the king himself was confined, and a parliament was summoned, most probably to create a protectorate for Warwick, perhaps to restore Clarence as heir.
When their regime collapsed, Warwick and Clarence were pardoned in December , but excluded from power.
Thwarted, yet not deflected from their objectives, and perhaps fearful that Edward was merely biding his time, Warwick and Clarence fomented the Lincolnshire Rebellion early in , this time with a view to putting Clarence on the throne: King George I.
The plot failed. After their defeat, Clarence was comprehended in Warwick's negotiations, his ambitions dropped. Whilst he secured restoration of his lands, or most of them, Clarence was now an anomaly, resented by returning Lancastrians whose advancement he obstructed, and certainly no better off than he was before.
When his mother, sisters, and other close kin pressed him to revert to the Yorkist cause, he was persuaded, transferring with his forces to Edward IV.
He was perjured; yet he sought to persuade Warwick to join him, unsuccessfully The Arrivall. Clarence fought at the battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury.
Edward IV was king once more and his son, the future Edward V, was heir. Signature of the duke of Clarence redrawn by Piat Design.
When Clarence returned to his allegiance, all was forgiven. His offences were wiped out and he was restored to his estates.
King Edward owed him. Under such circumstances, he could not be deprived of his wife's inheritance by the forfeiture of her father Warwick.
He was allowed to take instant possession of everything except the northern estates in tail male, which were granted to Gloucester.
Clarence also took custody of his sister-in-law Anne Neville, widow of Edward of Lancaster. Unfortunately the Warwick inheritance dispute sullied the relations of the three royal brothers.
Warwick the Kingmaker and his wife. Based on Rous Roll. The Countess Anne however survived until until then, neither daughter had any rights to her Beauchamp and Despenser estates or her jointure and were entitled to share only the rump of Warwick's Salisbury estates.
However Warwick had died a traitor and his estates should have been forfeited. Actually Clarence received all to which his duchess was heiress from either parent: whilst her hereditary expectations were taken into account, his title was by royal grant.
He did not intend Anne to inherit or remarry. She however married Gloucester, who laid claim to half the Beauchamp, Despenser and Salisbury lands, probably in addition to the Neville lands.
Edward IV imposed as settlement the division of all four inheritances. All three brothers agreed not to attaint Warwick or his brother Montagu, but to dispossess the Countess Anne and Montagu's son of their entitlements.
Crowland found the settlement profoundly shocking. If this allowed Clarence to secure his duchess' heritage ahead of time, he was nevertheless deprived of much that he had received in even though his brother's marriage to Anne Neville was never valid [For an alternative perspective on this see the following article and here ].
Clarence resisted implementation of this dubious settlement but was obliged to comply: in punishment, he was deprived of his Tutbury estates, so he benefited little on balance from his duchess' inheritance.
It is not surprising that he resented the way that he had been treated. Reconciliation with Edward Only six years passed between Clarence's reconciliation with his brother in and his fall in He was appointed great chamberlain of England, councillor of the new Prince of Wales who had supplanted him as heir, attended the council, parliament, and state ceremonies, and took one of the largest retinues on Edward's invasion of France in Whilst he had lands all over the country, his principal estates were in the North Midlands until , in the West Midlands, and in the West Country: he is recorded occasionally commuting from Warwick via Tewkesbury to Tiverton in Devon.
He is revealed by John Rous as lord of Warwick in the Beauchamp tradition. He fathered four children, two of whom outlived him. Following his duchess' death in , he appears to have believed her poisoned by her attendant Ankarette Twynho, who — in a shocking display of arbitrary power — he abducted from her home in Dorset to Warwick, where he was most powerful.
She was put on trial, all stages being completed in one day, and executed. This is the most convincing proof of Clarence's overwhelming power in his home country.
Treason and Death Several factors contributed to Clarence's rupture with his king in Following his duchess' death, he was in the market for a second consort.
The opportunity arose with the death of Charles, Duke of Burgundy, whose duchess — his sister Margaret of York—favoured Clarence as consort to her step-daughter Mary, Clarence's step-niece, 'the greatest heiress of her time'.
Clarence would have become an important sovereign prince. Such a match might have been thought in England's national interest, but Edward IV thwarted it.
Perhaps he feared what use Clarence would make of such promotion; perhaps he did not want his brother advanced; most probably he wanted to avoid foreign entanglements and expense, a breach with France or the loss of his French pension — a priority that restricted his diplomatic independence and ultimately failed.
Clarence reportedly attended council less frequently and contributed little when there. In private he complained against Edward and Edward railed against Clarence, but their comments were relayed from each to other.
Reportedly Clarence feared that the king sought his ruin as a candle consumes in burning. Sibling rivalries overcame the proper relations of the monarch and his greatest subject.
Macbeth murders Duncan and Banquo because of his ambition. Briefly put, all of these characters murder innocent characters because of their tragic flaws; yet, they are still accepted as tragic heroes.
By the same token, there should not be any difficulty in accepting Richard III as a tragic hero who commits many murders of innocent characters because of his tragic flaw.
These remarks made by Richard III give more insight into his human nature—he is able to understand the terrible implications of his actions and he is able to acknowledge he has done wrong.
In this regard, Richard III is more of a superior tragic hero than characters such as Macbeth and Hamlet who have no remorse for the murders of innocent characters they commit.
Indeed, Richard III does commit many evil acts in the play—but these evil acts do not hinder him from qualifying as an Aristotelian tragic hero.
Acknowledging that Richard III is a tragic hero is highly critical because it allows critics to realize that characters who commit immoral actions can still be considered a tragic hero.
Ansari, A. Barnet, Sylvan. Marymount University, Arlington, Virginia. Crawford, John W. Price, Michael W.
Rippy, Marguerite H. Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of King Richard the Third. Peter Holland.
New York: Penguin, Magnificat a journal of undergraduate nonfiction.
The Folio is longer than the Quarto and contains some fifty additional passages amounting to more than two hundred lines. However, the Quarto contains some twenty-seven passages amounting to about thirty-seven lines that are absent from the Folio.
At one time, it was thought that the Quarto represented a separate revision of the play by Shakespeare. However, since the Quarto contains many changes that can only be regarded as mistakes, it is now widely believed that the Quarto was produced by memorial reconstruction.
It is unknown why the actors did this, but it may have been to replace a missing prompt book. Unlike his previous tragedy Titus Andronicus , the play avoids graphic demonstrations of physical violence; only Richard and Clarence are shown being stabbed on-stage, while the rest the two princes, Hastings, Brackenbury, Grey, Vaughan, Rivers, Anne, Buckingham, and King Edward all meet their ends off-stage.
Despite the villainous nature of the title character and the grim storyline, Shakespeare infuses the action with comic material, as he does with most of his tragedies.
Much of the humour rises from the dichotomy between how Richard's character is known and how Richard tries to appear.
Richard himself also provides some dry remarks in evaluating the situation, as when he plans to marry Queen Elizabeth's daughter: "Murder her brothers, then marry her; Uncertain way of gain One of the central themes of Richard III is the idea of fate, especially as it is seen through the tension between free will and fatalism in Richard's actions and speech, as well as the reactions to him by other characters.
This influence, especially as it relates to the role of divine punishment in Richard's rule of England, reaches its height in the voice of Margaret.
Janis Lull suggests that "Margaret gives voice to the belief, encouraged by the growing Calvinism of the Elizabethan era, that individual historical events are determined by God, who often punishes evil with apparent evil".
Scholar Victor Kiernan writes that this interpretation is a perfect fit with the English social perspective of Shakespeare's day: "An extension is in progress of a privileged class's assurance of preferential treatment in the next world as in this, to a favoured nation's conviction of having God on its side, of Englishmen being However, historical fatalism is merely one side of the argument of fate versus free will.
It is also possible that Shakespeare intended to portray Richard as "a personification of the Machiavellian view of history as power politics".
Kiernan also presents this side of the coin, noting that Richard "boasts to us of his finesse in dissembling and deception with bits of Scripture to cloak his 'naked villainy' I.
Machiavelli , as Shakespeare may want us to realise, is not a safe guide to practical politics". Kiernan suggests that Richard is merely acting as if God is determining his every step in a sort of Machiavellian manipulation of religion as an attempt to circumvent the moral conscience of those around him.
Therefore, historical determinism is merely an illusion perpetrated by Richard's assertion of his own free will. However, though it seems Richard views himself as completely in control, Lull suggests that Shakespeare is using Richard to state "the tragic conception of the play in a joke.
His primary meaning is that he controls his own destiny. His pun also has a second, contradictory meaning—that his villainy is predestined—and the strong providentialism of the play ultimately endorses this meaning".
Literary critic Paul Haeffner writes that Shakespeare had a great understanding of language and the potential of every word he used.
The first definition is used to express a "gentle and loving" man, which Clarence uses to describe his brother Richard to the murderers that were sent to kill him.
The second definition concerns "the person's true nature Richard will indeed use Hastings kindly—that is, just as he is in the habit of using people—brutally".
Haeffner also writes about how speech is written. He compares the speeches of Richmond and Richard to their soldiers. He describes Richmond's speech as "dignified" and formal, while Richard's speech is explained as "slangy and impetuous".
However, Lull does not make the comparison between Richmond and Richard as Haeffner does, but between Richard and the women in his life.
However, it is important to the women share the formal language that Richmond uses. She makes the argument that the difference in speech "reinforces the thematic division between the women's identification with the social group and Richard's individualism".
Janis Lull also takes special notice of the mourning women. She suggests that they are associated with "figures of repetition as anaphora—beginning each clause in a sequence with the same word—and epistrophe—repeating the same word at the end of each clause".
Haeffner refers to these as few of many "devices and tricks of style" that occur in the play, showcasing Shakespeare's ability to bring out the potential of every word.
Throughout the play, Richard's character constantly changes and shifts and, in doing so, alters the dramatic structure of the story.
Richard immediately establishes a connection with the audience with his opening monologue. In the soliloquy he admits his amorality to the audience but at the same time treats them as if they were co-conspirators in his plotting; one may well be enamored of his rhetoric  while being appalled by his actions.
However, Richard pretends to be Clarence's friend, falsely reassuring him by saying, "I will deliver you, or else lie for you" 1. Mooney describes Richard as occupying a "figural position"; he is able to move in and out of it by talking with the audience on one level, and interacting with other characters on another.
Each scene in Act I is book-ended by Richard directly addressing the audience. This action on Richard's part not only keeps him in control of the dramatic action of the play, but also of how the audience sees him: in a somewhat positive light, or as the protagonist.
Like Vice, Richard is able to render what is ugly and evil—his thoughts and aims, his view of other characters—into what is charming and amusing for the audience.
However, after Act I, the number and quality of Richard's asides to the audience decrease significantly, as well as multiple scenes are interspersed that do not include Richard at all,  : p.
Without Richard guiding the audience through the dramatic action, the audience is left to evaluate for itself what is going on. When Richard enters to bargain with Queen Elizabeth for her daughter's hand—a scene whose form echoes the same rhythmically quick dialogue as the Lady Anne scene in Act I—he has lost his vivacity and playfulness for communication; it is obvious he is not the same man.
By the end of Act IV everyone else in the play, including Richard's own mother, the Duchess, has turned against him.
He does not interact with the audience nearly as much, and the inspiring quality of his speech has declined into merely giving and requiring information.
As Richard gets closer to seizing the crown, he encloses himself within the world of the play; no longer embodying his facile movement in and out of the dramatic action, he is now stuck firmly within it.
Shakespeare scholar Stephen Greenblatt notes how Richard even refers to himself as "the formal Vice, Iniquity" 3. Richmond is a clear contrast to Richard's evil character, which makes the audience see him as such.
Cibber himself played the role till , and his version was on stage for the next century and a half. It contained the lines "Off with his head; so much for Buckingham" — possibly the most famous Shakespearean line that Shakespeare did not write — and "Richard's himself again!
The original Shakespearean version returned in a production at Sadler's Wells Theatre in McKellen's film is directly based on an earlier stage production set in a Nazified England of the s, which toured Europe for six years to sell-out crowds prior to being shortly thereafter adapted to film.
McKellen wrote the screenplay for his film version, although he did not direct it. Olivier played Richard on stage for quite a few years in the s before making a film of it in His film performance, if not the production as a whole, is heavily based on his earlier stage rendition.
The Al Pacino film Looking for Richard is a documentary of rehearsals of specific scenes from the play, and a meditation on the play's significance.
Pacino had played the role on stage 15 years earlier. In , well-known film actor Kevin Spacey starred in an Old Vic production which subsequently toured the United States, directed by well-known stage and film director Sam Mendes.
No plans for a film version have been announced. Spacey had played the role of Richard's henchman, the Duke of Buckingham, in the Pacino film.
The film was later remade by Roger Corman in with Vincent Price in the lead role. The most famous player of the part in recent times was Laurence Olivier in his film version.
Olivier's film incorporates a few scenes and speeches from Shakespeare's Henry VI, Part 3 and Cibber's rewrite of Shakespeare's play, but cuts entirely the characters of Queen Margaret and the Duchess of York, and Richard's soliloquy after seeing the ghosts of his victims.
Olivier has Richard seduce Lady Anne while mourning over the corpse of her husband rather than her father-in-law as in the play.
Olivier's rendition has been parodied by many comedians, including Peter Cook and Peter Sellers. The first episode of the BBC television comedy Blackadder in part parodies the Olivier film, visually as in the crown motif , Peter Cook's performance as a benevolent Richard, and by mangling Shakespearean text "Now is the summer of our sweet content made o'ercast winter by these Tudor clouds Richard Loncraine's film , starring Ian McKellen , is set in a fictional fascist England in the s, and based on an earlier highly successful stage production.
Only about half the text of the play is used. The first part of his "Now is the winter of our discontent The famous final line of Richard's "A horse, my kingdom for a horse" is spoken when his jeep becomes trapped after backing up into a large pile of rubble.
In , Al Pacino made his directoral debut and played the title role in Looking for Richard , analysing the plot of the play and playing out several scenes from it, as well as conducting a broader examination of Shakespeare's continuing role and relevance in popular culture.
The minute film is considered to be the earliest surviving American feature film. The earliest surviving portrait of Richard c.
Greyfriars, Leicester originally Leicester Cathedral re-interred, 26 March Anne Neville m. Edward of Middleham John of Gloucester illegitimate Katherine illegitimate.
Further information: Buckingham's rebellion. Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York 4. Richard of Conisburgh, Earl of Cambridge 9.
Isabella of Castile 2. Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March 5.
Anne Mortimer Alianore Holland 1. Richard III of England John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville 6. Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland Maud Percy 3.
Cecily Neville John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster 7. Joan Beaufort Katherine Swynford. It may have been partly to appease Warwick's injured feelings towards the rising influence of the king's new Woodville in-laws that he was given the honour of taking Richard into his household to complete his education, probably at some time in ".
In August of that year, by which time Clarence had married Isabel, an Italian observer in London mistakenly reported that Warwick had married his two daughters to the King's brothers Cal.
Milanese Papers, I , pp. However, any personal attachment he may have felt to Middleham was likely mitigated in his adulthood, as surviving records demonstrate he spent less time there than at Barnard Castle and Pontefract.
Richard of Gloucester formed no more of a personal attachment to Middleham than he did to Barnard Castle or Pontefract, at both of which surviving records suggest he spent more time.
IV no. University of Leicester. Retrieved 5 February A very pronounced curve in the spine was visible when the body was first uncovered, evidence of scoliosis which may have meant that Richard's right shoulder was noticeably higher than his left The type of scoliosis seen here is known as idiopathic adolescent onset scoliosis.
The word idiopathic means that the reason for its development is not entirely clear, although there is probably a genetic component.
The term adolescent onset indicates that the deformity wasn't present at birth, but developed after the age of ten.
It is quite possible that the scoliosis was progressive BBC News. Retrieved 7 December The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 24 November Retrieved 8 July The East Anglian Paston family have left historians a rich source of historical information for the lives of the English gentry of the period in a large collection of surviving letters.
CPR —77, p. Retrieved 7 September He embroiled himself in a dangerous feud in the north midlands and associated himself politically with Warwick, who graduated from direction of Edward's affairs in the early s to outright opposition.
However, Ross cites a letter from Edward IV in May , the letter of appointment to his position as Lieutenant-General referred to his "proven capacity in the arts of war".
Retrieved 13 May However, Wood goes on to observe that "the impressions conveyed by this document are in many respects demonstrably false.
College of Arms. Archived from the original on 1 June Retrieved 6 December Appointed steward of the king's household late in , [Thomas Stanley] was thenceforward a regular member of the royal council.
Castles of Wales Website. Archived from the original on 24 November Retrieved 4 February Retrieved 3 December The Guardian.
Press Association. Retrieved 18 September Archived from the original on 25 July Retrieved 5 July He was formally declared heir apparent to the throne in parliament in February History Refreshed.
Archived from the original on 6 July Retrieved 31 March Archived from the original on 27 September Archived from the original on 4 December Archived from the original on 8 April He kept himself within his own lands and set out to acquire the loyalty of his people through favours and justice.
The good reputation of his private life and public activities powerfully attracted the esteem of strangers.
Such was his renown in warfare, that whenever a difficult and dangerous policy had to be undertaken, it would be entrusted to his direction and his generalship.
By these arts Richard acquired the favour of the people and avoided the jealousy of the queen, from whom he lived far separated.
John Spooner York Records, p. Washington Post. Archived from the original on 29 August The comparison is with Barabas in Marlowe's Jew of Malta of a couple of years earlier.
Archived from the original on 14 July Why, Love forswore me in my mother's womb, And, for I should not deal in her soft laws, She did corrupt frail nature with some bribe To shrink mine arm up like a wither'd shrub; To make an envious mountain on my back, Where sits deformity to mock my body; To shape my legs of an unequal size;.
Andrews, Allen Kings of England and Scotland. Marshall Cavendish. Stroud: The History Press published 16 January Stroud, England: Amberley.
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Richard III revised ed. Stroud: Amberley Publishing. The Ricardian. Oxford University Press published 6 May Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online ed.
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New York: Bantam Books. The English Historical Review. Development of Shakespeare's Imagery 2nd ed. London: Methuen.
London: T. London: W. Subscription or UK public library membership required. Ferguson, Richard S. A History of Cumberland. London: Elliot Stock.
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The Founding new ed. London: Sphere. Gloucester, England: Alan Sutton. Richard III revised illustrated ed. Stroud, England: Tempus.
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London: Longman. Bosworth Psychology of a Battle new ed. London: John Murray. Gordon In Ray B.
Kreiser eds. Richard the Third. Tudor writers and artists had no qualms about depicting Richard III as an evil tyrant and child-murderer, as well as a crippled hunchback.
With a controversial claim to the throne, accusations of blood on his hands, a violent and gory death, and a bad press largely derived from a classic of English literature — not forgetting serious debate about his physical appearance — it is no wonder that Richard III continues to fascinate historians, scholars and the public in the 21st century.
He is the 12th of 13 children, seven of whom survive to adulthood. Richard's father is killed at the Battle of Wakefield on 30 December Eight-year-old Richard becomes a ward of his eldest brother Edward, who has recently turned Richard is made Duke of Gloucester on 1 November.
Edward IV and the Earl of Warwick's disagreements finally break out into open conflict, with Warwick supporting the claim of a third brother - George, Duke of Clarence seven years younger than Edward, three years older than Richard.
However Warwick releases Edward when it becomes clear that he cannot rule alone. Warwick leads a second revolt against Edward which forces the King — and Richard — to flee across the channel to Burgundy.
Henry VI is restored to the throne on 30 October although real power rests with Warwick and Clarence. Henry VI is captured and dies in the Tower of London.
Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales, is born, probably in December although some sources say Richard may also have had two or three illegitimate children, but little is known of them.Shakespeares Drama hat das Bild des englischen Königs Richard III. bis heute geprägt: ein buckliger Erz-Bösewicht. Die jüngste Forschung. Richard war der jüngste von acht Söhnen des Richard Plantagenet, dem 3. Duke of York. Plantagenet hatte einen Anspruch auf den englischen. Shakespeare, William - Richard III. - Inhalt und Analyse - Andreas Sichelstiel - Referat / Aufsatz (Schule) - Didaktik - Deutsch - Literatur, Werke - Arbeiten. Produktbeschreibungen. Kurzbeschreibung. Die Tragödie von König Richard III. (engl. The Tragedy of King Richard the Third) ist ein Drama von William. William Shakespeare. König Richard III. Personen. König Eduard IV. Eduard, Prinz von Wales, nachmals König Eduard V. Richard, Herzog von York, Söhne des. Spacey had played the role of VollstГ¤ndig nicht henchman, the Duke of Buckingham, in the Pacino film. Clarence resisted implementation of this dubious settlement but was obliged to comply: in punishment, he was deprived of his Tutbury wright isaac hempstead, so he benefited little on sims 4 autos from his duchess' inheritance. Dockray, Keith; Hammond, Peter W. Richard's corpse was taken to the nearby town of Leicester and buried without see more. Monarchs pity, mister germany 2019 opinion England until Richard had a financial interest in the land himself, but surviving letters reveal his willingness to allow Continue reading to lay down the terms and place of negotiation.